Exploring the interrelationships between governance, poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation in the framework of market chains concerned with non-timber forest products exploitation in the Congo Basin. Particularly focusing on governance and governance arrangements and how they help or hinder access of the rural poor to forest resources and their sustainable exploitation, with implications for both poverty alleviation along the market value chain and for biodiversity conservation. A value chain approach of nine NTFPs (Apiculture products (honey wax and propolis), pygeum (Prunus africana) and Gnetum spp. in detail, with reference to bush mango (Irvingia spp.), wild plum (Dacryodes edulis), bamboo, cola, raphia, gum arabic and fuelwood), sustainable livelihoods concepts and inspiration from economic game theory will guide the research.