Explaining Turkey's emergence and sustained competitiveness as a full-package supplier of apparel

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By using the main insights of the global value chains perspective and some of its critiques, we attempt to explain how Turkey has developed and sustained its export success as a full-package supplier of apparel during the 1990s and early 2000s. Towards this end, we first analyze the global dynamics that have facilitated Turkey's incorporation into global value chains and the development of full-package production. Second, we outline the key strategies which Turkish full-package suppliers have employed to meet international standards, typically associated with this export role. Third, we show that all of these developments have unfolded against a national context, unique features of which have further helped Turkey to sustain its competitiveness in this export role. Our analysis shows that, in the Turkish national context, more attention should be given to the role of business associations and the state.